Commercial (Cialis®): 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg Commercial (Generic): 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg
Tadalafil is a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 5 inhibitor similar to sildenafil and vardenafil. It is administered orally for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction (ED), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), or the concurrent treatment of erectile dysfunction and BPH. Tadalafil does not inhibit prostaglandins as do some agents for treating impotence (e.g., alprostadil). Unlike sildenafil, visual disturbances have not been reported with tadalafil, which is more selective for PDE5 than for PDE6 present in the retina. The duration of action of tadalafil for the treatment of ED (up to 36 hours) appears to be longer than that of sildenafil and vardenafil. Because PDE inhibitors promote erection only in the presence of sexual stimulation, the longer duration of action of tadalafil allows for more spontaneity in sexual activity. In October 2011, tadalafil received FDA approval for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and for the concurrent treatment of erectile dysfunction and BPH.
Tadalafil is a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). The physiologic mechanism of erection of the penis involves release of nitric oxide (NO) in the corpus cavernosum during sexual stimulation. Nitric oxide then activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which results in increased levels of cGMP. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate causes smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum thereby allowing inflow of blood; the exact mechanism by which cGMP stimulates relaxation of smooth muscles has not been determined. Phosphodiesterase type 5 is responsible for degradation of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum. Tadalafil enhances the effect of NO by inhibiting PDE5 thereby raising concentrations of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum. Tadalafil has no direct relaxant effect on isolated human corpus cavernosum and, at recommended doses, has no effect in the absence of sexual stimulation. The mechanism by which tadalafil reduces the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not been established; however, the effect of PDE5 inhibition on cGMP concentrations in the corpus cavernosum and pulmonary arteries is also observed in the smooth muscle of the prostate, bladder, and their vascular supply.2 Tadalafil can inhibit PDE5 present in lung tissue and esophageal smooth muscle. Inhibition of PDE5 in lung tissue results in relaxation of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle and subsequent pulmonary vasodilation, thereby making tadalafil an effective agent in treating pulmonary hypertension.3 Inhibition of esophageal smooth muscle PDE5 can cause a marked reduction in esophageal motility as well as in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) tone. These effects may be beneficial in certain motor disorders involving the esophagus such as diffuse spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and hypertensive LES. However, the reduction in LES tone can worsen the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Dyspepsia (indigestion) is one of the most common adverse reactions associated with PDE5 inhibitor therapy.
Possible interactions include certain drugs for high blood pressure; certain drugs for the treatment of HIV infection or AIDS; certain drugs used for fungal or yeast infections, like fluconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole; certain drugs used for seizures like carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital; grapefruit juice; macrolide antibiotics; medicines for prostate problems; rifabutin, rifampin or rifapentine. The manufacturer of tadalafil recommends avoiding the use of tadalafil with any other phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Tadalafil administration to patients who are concurrently using organic nitrates or nitrites in any form is contraindicated. Tadalafil, other PDE5 inhibitors, and alpha-blockers are systemic vasodilators which can lower blood pressure. If vasodilators are used in combination, an additive effect on blood pressure is anticipated. Patients receiving alpha-blocker therapy for BPH prior to tadalafil initiation should discontinue the alpha-blocker at least one day prior to beginning tadalafil treatment. When tadalafil is co-administered with an alpha-blocker in a patient receiving tadalafil for erectile dysfunction (ED), the patient should be stable on alpha-blocker therapy before starting PDE5 inhibitor therapy. Particular caution should be used when prescribing phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, such as tadalafil, to patients receiving certain protease inhibitors such as atazanavir, darunavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, fosamprenavir, indinavir, tipranavir, nelfinavir, or saquinavir. Tadalafil is metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4. Efavirenz induces CYP3A4 and may decrease serum concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme.76 Similar precautions apply to combination products containing efavirenz such as efavirenz; emtricitabine; tenofovir. In theory, CYP3A4 inhibitors which may interact with tadalafil include amiodarone, cimetidine, clarithromycin or products containing clarithromycin, conivaptan, diltiazem, erythromycin or products containing erythromycin, fluconazole, fluoxetine or combination products with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, ketoconazole, imatinib, STI-571, itraconazole, mibefradil, nefazodone, quinidine or combination products with quinidine, troleandomycin, telithromycin, voriconazole, zafirlukast, and zileuton. Increased systemic exposure to tadalafil may result in increased associated adverse events including hypotension, syncope, visual changes, and prolonged erection. The manufacturer of tadalafil recommends that in patients receiving concomitant potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, the 'as needed' dose for erectile dysfunction should not exceed 10 mg within a 72 hour time period, and the 'once-daily' dose for erectile dysfunction or benign prostatic hyperplasia should not exceed 2.5 mg. Tadalafil is metabolized via the CYP3A4 isozyme. Grapefruit juice (food) has been reported to decrease the metabolism of drugs metabolized via this enzyme. CYP3A4 inducers such as barbiturates, bosentan, carbamazepine, dexamethasone, phenytoin or fosphenytoin, nevirapine, rifabutin, troglitazone, rifampin, or isoniazid would likely decrease tadalafil AUC since tadalafil is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4.6 Patients should be monitored for loss of efficacy of tadalafil during concurrent use. The combination of tadalafil and substantial consumption of ethanol can increase the potential for orthostatic signs and symptoms, including increase in heart rate, decrease in standing blood pressure, dizziness, and headache. Ethanol and PDE5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, are mild systemic vasodilators. Nilotinib is a competitive inhibitor of CYP3A4, and tadalafil is a CYP3A4 substrate.1112 Concurrent administration of the CYP3A4 substrate midazolam with nilotinib increased midazolam exposure by 30%. Caution should be exercised when coadministering nilotinib with CYP3A4 substrates, especially substrates with a narrow therapeutic index.12 Sapropterin acts as a cofactor in the synthesis of nitric oxide and may cause vasorelaxation. Caution should be exercised when administering sapropterin in combination with drugs that affect nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation such as tadalafil. Nifedipine can have additive hypotensive effects when administered with phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE 5 inhibitors). The patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response. Headache occurred in 3—15%, dyspepsia occurred in 1—10%, nasal congestion occurred in 2—4% and flushing occurred in 1—3% of patients during erectile dysfunction clinical trials. Other gastrointestinal/digestive adverse reactions reported by tadalafil recipients and more frequently than placebo included nausea (1—11%), viral gastroenteritis (3—5%), gastroesophageal reflux (1—3%), abdominal pain (1—2%), and diarrhea (1—2%).
Your health care provider needs to know if you have any of these conditions: bleeding disorders; eye or vision problems, including retinitis pigmentosa; Peyronie’s disease, or history of priapism (painful and prolonged erection); heart disease, angina, a history of heart attack, irregular heart beats; high or low blood pressure; history of blood diseases; history of stomach bleeding; kidney disease; liver disease; stroke; an unusual or allergic reaction to tadalafil. If you notice any changes in your vision while taking this drug, call your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible. Stop using this medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have a loss of sight in one or both eyes. Contact your healthcare provider right away if the erection lasts longer than 4 hours or if it becomes painful. If you experience symptoms of nausea, dizziness, chest pain or arm pain upon initiation of sexual activity after taking this medicine, you should refrain from further activity and call your healthcare provider immediately. Do not drink alcohol when taking this medicine as alcohol can increase your chances of getting a headache or getting dizzy, increasing your heart rate or lowering your blood pressure. Using this medicine does not protect you or your partner against HIV infection or other sexually transmitted infections. Tadalafil is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug or any component of the tablet. The safety and efficacy of combinations of tadalafil with other treatments for erectile dysfunction have not been studied. Therefore, the use of such combinations is not recommended. Because the efficacy of concurrent use of tadalafil and alpha-blockers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not been adequately studied, and due to the potential vasodilatory effects of such combination treatment, tadalafil is not recommended for use with alpha-blockers when treating BPH (see Drug Interactions). Tadalafil is contraindicated in patients who are currently on nitrate/nitrite therapy. Consistent with its known effects on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway, tadalafil may potentiate the hypotensive effects of organic nitrates and nitrites. Patients receiving nitrates in any form are not to receive tadalafil. This includes any patient who receives intermittent nitrate therapies. It is unknown if it is safe for patients to receive nitrates once tadalafil has been administered. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, use of tadalafil is not recommended because of insufficient data. Additionally, tadalafil is metabolized by CYP3A4 in the liver. Dosage adjustments are necessary in patients taking potent CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ritonavir, ketoconazole, and itraconazole. There is a degree of cardiac risk associated with sexual activity; therefore, prescribers should evaluate the cardiovascular status of their patients prior to initiating any treatment for erectile dysfunction. Tadalafil and other PDE5 inhibitors have mild systemic vasodilatory properties that may result in transient decreases in blood pressure. Health care professionals should consider whether the individual would be adversely affected by vasodilatory events. The manufacturer does not recommend the use of tadalafil in these groups until more data are available: myocardial infarction within the last 90 days; coronary artery disease resulting in unstable angina or angina occurring during sexual intercourse; NYHA Class II or greater heart failure in the last 6 months; uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmias; hypotension (< 90/50 mmHg); uncontrolled hypertension ( 170/100 mmHg); or a stroke within the last 6 months. Based on recommendations for sildenafil by the American College of Cardiology, it is recommended that tadalafil be used with caution in the following: patients with active coronary ischemia (angina) who are not taking nitrates (e.g., positive exercise test for ischemia); patients with congestive heart failure and borderline low blood pressure and borderline low volume status (hypovolemia); patients on a complicated, multidrug, antihypertensive program; and patients taking drugs that can prolong the half-life of tadalafil. Prolonged erections greater than 4 hours and priapism (painful erections greater than 6 hours in duration) have been associated with PDE5 inhibitor administration. Priapism, if not treated promptly, can result in irreversible damage to the erectile tissue. Patients who have an erection lasting greater than 4 hours, whether painful or not, should seek emergency medical attention. Use tadalafil, and other agents for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, with caution in patients with penile structural abnormality (such as angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, or Peyronie's disease), or in patients who have conditions which may predispose them to priapism (such as sickle cell disease, leukemia, multiple myeloma, polycythemia, or history of priapism). Use tadalafil cautiously in patients with pre-existing visual disturbance. Tadalafil is not indicated for use in women. The manufacturer recommends caution when administering tadalafil to patients with significant hematological disease (e.g., bleeding disorders) since the effects of the drug in this patient population have not been formally studied
Tadalafil is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category B. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of tadalafil in pregnant women. According to the manufacturer, Adcirca should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed;3 Tadalafil is not indicated for use in women.
It is not known if tadalafil is excreted in breast milk. Adcirca should be used with caution in breast-feeding women;3 Tadalafil is not indicated for use in women.2 Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated coAnchorndition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.
Back pain; dizziness; flushing; headache; indigestion; muscle aches; nausea; stuffy or runny nose. This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your healthcare provider immediately if you experience signs of an allergic reaction like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue; breathing problems; changes in hearing; changes in vision; chest pain; erection lasting more than 4 hours; fast, irregular heartbeat; seizures. The risk for serious hypotension is augmented by the use of nitrates; therefore, the use of tadalafil in patients receiving nitrate therapy is contraindicated. Other cardiac effects reported in less than 2% of patients during clinical trials include angina, chest pain (unspecified), myocardial infarction, orthostatic hypotension, palpitations, syncope, and sinus tachycardia.
Store this medication at 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C) and away from heat, moisture and light. Keep all medicine out of the reach of children. Throw away any unused medicine after the beyond use date. Do not flush unused medications or pour down a sink or drain.